징기스칸,몽골 관련 유물

마르코폴로가 징기스칸의 손자 쿠빌라이를 만나는 장면
The Polos leaving Constantinople in 1259-1260
Source ---"Le Livre des Merveilles", 15th century
Author --- Unknown

징기스칸과 왕자들

The Siege of Baghdad
바그다드 포위
Naked force, has settled more issues in history than has any other factor, and the contrary opinion is wishful thinking at its worst.

여왕의 유물(징기스칸의 부인것? 확실한건 모름)


징기스칸의 투구,갑주?

Dibao Silk (Xi’an Branch) in Shaanxi,


추적당하는 테무진(1차 테무진?)

1206년 즉위식
Temujin sits in his gur, having just been proclaimed Chinggis Khan.
From an early 14th century manuscript of Rashid al-Din.

키작은 징기스칸?
Chinggis Khan's encampment.
From an early 14th century manuscript of Rashid al-Din.

Chinggis Khan seated, with his sons Jöchi and Ögödei on the left.
From Rashid ad-Din's Manuscript, Jami al-Tawarikh, early 14th century.
Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris.

Mongol siege techniques in 1221 were little different than those used for the siege of Baghdad in 1258.
A 14th century Persian illustration from the Heinrich von Diez Albums, Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin.

A city under Mongol siege. The Mongols used battering rams, catapults, trebuchets, bridges and scaling ladders.
From the illuminated manuscript of Rashid ad-Din's Jami al-Tawarikh, written in about 1307. Edinburgh University Library.

Chinggis Khan and his retinue watch in amazement as the Khorezmshah Jalal ad-Din prepares to ford the Indus.
From the "History of Abul-Khayr Khan" by Mas'ud b. Osmani Kuhistani, 1540's.
Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, Tashkent.

A very Mughal-looking Chinggis Khan with his wife Börte, dividing his Empire between his sons.
From a copy of the Chinggis-nama of the Jami al-Tawarikh, made for the court of the Emperor of Hindustan, Akbar the Great.
Drawn by Baswan and coloured by Bhim of Gujarat in 1596-97.

Chinggis Khan assigning lands to his four sons.
Illustration from the 16th century Ta'rikh-i guzida-i Nusratnama, British Library, London.


Agajanov, S. G., The States of the Oghuz, the Kimek and the Kipchak, History of the Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume 4, pages 61 to 76, UNESCO, 1998.

Akhmedov, B., revised by D. Sinor, Central Asia under the rule of Chinggis Khan's successors, History of the Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume 4, pages 261 to 268, UNESCO, 1998.

Al-Athir, Ibn, al-Kamil fi'l-Ta'rikh, Dar Al-Kutub Al-'Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003.

Allsen, T. T., Commodity and exchange in the Mongol empire, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997.

Barthold, V. V., Four Studies on the History of Central Asia, Volume 3, A History of the Turkmen People, E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1962.

Barthold, V. V., Turkestan down to the Mongol Invasion, E. J. W. Gibb Memorial Trust, London, 1977.

Bira, Sh., The Mongols and their state in the twelfth to the thirteenth century, History of the Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume 4, pages 243 to 259, UNESCO, 2000.

Boyle, J. A., Dynastic and Political History of the Il-Khans, The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 5, The Saljuq and Mongol Periods, edited by J. A. Boyle, pages 303 to 421, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1968.

Bretschneider, E., Medieval Researches from Eastern Asiatic Sources, Volume 1, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., Reprint of 1888 edition, New Delhi, 2001.

Buryakov, Y. F., Baipakov, K. M., Tashbaeva, Kh., and Yakubov, Y., The Cities and Routes of the Great Silk Road, International Institute for Central Asian Studies, Shark, Tashkent, 1999.

Clavijo, R. G. de, Embassy to Tamerlane 1403-1406, translated from the Spanish by Guy Le Strange, George Routledge & Sons, Ltd., London, 1928.

Curtin, J., The Mongols in Russia, Sampson Low, Marston, & Company, London, 1908.

Dawson, C., The Mongol Mission, Sheed and Ward, London, 1955.

De Hartog, Genghis Khan, Conqueror of the World, Tauris Parke Paperbacks, London, 2004.

Dimnik, M., The Dynasty of Chernigov, 1146-1246, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003.

Eisma, D., Chinggis Qan and the conquest of Eurasia, Lulu Press, Inc., The Hague, 2006.

Engel, P., The Realm of St. Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary, 895-1526, I. B. Taurus, London, 2005.

Gabriel, R. A., Subotai the Valiant: Genghis Khan's Greatest General, Praeger/Greenwood, Westport, 2004.

Golden, P. B., An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1992.

Grousset, R., The Empire of the Steppes, A History of Central Asia, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, 1999.

Houdas, O., translator and editor, Mohammed En-Nesawi, Histoire du Sultan Djelal ed-din Mankobirti, L'école des langues orientale vivantes, Paris, 1895.

Jackson, P., From Ulus to Khanate: the Making of the Mongol States c.1220 � c.1290, The Mongol Empire and its Legacy, edited by R. Amitai-Preiss and D. O. Morgan, pages 12 to 38, Brill, Leiden, 2000.

Jackson, P., The Mission of Friar William of Rubruck. His journey to the court of the Great Khan Möngke 1253-1255, The Hakluyt Society, London, 1990.

Juvaini, Ata-Malik, The History of the World Conqueror, Part II, translated by J. A. Boyle, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1997.

Kaplonski, C., The Mongolian Impact on Eurasia: A Reassessment, Chapter 14 in The Role of Migration in the History of the Eurasian Steppe, edited by A. Bell-Fialkoff, pages 251 to 274, Macmillan Press Ltd, Basingstoke, 2000.

Kolbas, J., The Mongols in Iran, Chingiz Khan to Uljaytu 1220-1309, Routledge, London, 2006.

Legg, S., The Heartland, Secker & Warburg, London, 1970.

Li Chi Ch'ang, The Travels of Ch'ang Ch'un to the West, 1220-1223, translated by E. Bretschneider, 1888.

Lister, R. P., The Secret History of Genghis Khan, Peter Davies, London, 1969.

Man, J., Gengis Khan, Life, Death and Resurrection, Bantam Books, London, 2005.

Martin, J., Medieval Russia 980-1584, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995.

Nezarik, Ye. Ye., Khorezm from the 9th to the beginning of the 13th centuries, from In the Delta of the Oxus and the Jaxartes, pages 105 to 124, Indrik Publishers, Moscow, 2000.

Nicolle, D., and Shpakovsky, V., Kalka River 1223, Genghiz Khan's Mongols invade Russia, Osprey Publishing, Oxford, 2001.

Nizami, K. A., The Ghurids, History of the Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume 4, pages 177 to 190, UNESCO, 1998.

Nurmukhamedov, M. K., Muminov, I. M., and Dosumov, Y. M., History of the Karakalpak ASSR, Volume 1, Fan Publishing House, Tashkent, 1986.

Nurmukhamedov, M. K., Zhdanko, T. A., and Kamalov, S. K., The Karakalpaks, Tashkent, 1971.

Onon, U., The Secret History of the Mongols, The Life and Times of Chinggis Khan, RoutledgeCurzon, London, 2001.

Pugachenkova, G. A., Dani, A. H., and Liu Yingsheng, Urban Development and Architecture, History of the Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume 4, pages 507 to 584, UNESCO, 2000.

Rashid al-Din, The Successors of Genghis Khan, translated by J. A. Boyle, Columbia University Press, New York, 1971.

Ratchnevsky, P., Genghis Khan, His Life and Legacy, translated by T. N. Haining, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA, 1991.

Raverty, Maj. H. G., translator, Tabakat-i-Nasiri, Asiatic Society, Calcutta, 1881/1995.

Saunders, J. J., The History of the Mongol Conquests, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1971.

Sevim A., and Bosworth, C. E., The Seljuqs and the Khwarazm Shahs, History of the Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume 4, pages 145 to 175, UNESCO, 1998.

Sinor, D., The Kitan and the Kara Khitay, History of the Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume 4, pages 227 to 242, UNESCO, 1998.

Sinor, D., and Klyashtorny, S. G., The Turk Empire, History of the Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume 3, pages 327 to 347, UNESCO, 1996.

Sinor, D., The Mongols in the West, Journal of Asian History, Volume 33, Number 1, Bloomington, 1999.

Skrine, F. H. B., and Ross, E. D., The Heart of Asia, Methuen and Co., London, 1899.

von Erdmann, F., Tumudschin der Unerschütterliche, F. A. Brockhaus, Leipzig, 1862.

Yagodin, V. N., Private Discussions, Institute of Archaeology, History and Ethnography, Karakalpak Branch of the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, No'kis, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005. .



중국인이 그린 징기스칸

당시 몽골의 게르

징기스칸은 아님.

Racinet's view of Babur setting out with his army (1876); *a larger scan*

Source: ebay, Jan. 2002

"Color Lithograph from 1876. Military Costumes of India - 16th Century. Legend: 'These fragments are taken from a 16th C. painting representing Djahir - El-din Mohammed, Bâber nicknamed (the Tiger), the king and emperor of  India, leaving at the head of his army to invade the province of Mazindera, in Persia. He was the Indian emperor (1526-30) and founder of the Mughal dynasty of India, a descendant of the Mongol conqueror  Genghis Khan and also of Timur (Tamerlane). He was a military adventurer and soldier of distinction and a poet and diarist of genius, as well as a  statesman. Babur is rightly considered the founder of the Indian Mughal Empire, even though the work of consolidating the empire was performed by his grandson Akbar. Babur, moreover, provided the glamour of magnetic leadership that inspired the next two generations.   Babur was a military adventurer of genius, an empire builder of good fortune, and an engaging personality. He was also a Turkey poet of considerable gifts that would have won him distinction apart from his political career. He was a lover of nature who constructed gardens wherever he went and  complemented beautiful spots by holding convivial parties. Finally, his prose memoirs, the Babur-nameh, have become a world classic of  autobiography. They were translated from Turki into Persian in Akbar's reign (1589) and were translated into English in two volumes in 1921-22 with  the title Memoirs of Babur. They portray a ruler unusually magnanimous for his age, cultured, witty, convivial, and full of good fellowship and  adventurous spirit, with a sensitive eye for natural beauty.

In this print, the Mogul is represented with all the attributes of the ruler, especially the parasol, carried over him. He is wearing a silk jacket, short sleeved, and a round shaped skirt, with ornamental design and large metal button-plate on his chest. The jacked is padded to protect against the arrows and his knees are also protected by metal plates. In his right hand, he is holding one of the offensive weapons of the time, a spear, with ends being finished with decorated metal, on the left side he wears a saber and on his belt, a quiver with feather arrows is attached. The soldier behind him carries a hammer like weapon, which could also be a heavy wood club, he is holding it with both his hands, indicating the heaviness of the weapon. The mogul's horse is entirely protected with armor of overlapped blades. An interesting feature is that he does not were the rider's boots but his personal slippers. Another interesting feature of this painting is the lack of elephants in his army. Before the ruler, we see a number of infantrymen who proceed him and by shouting create a necessary room for him to pass."


Left: Chinggis Khan pursuing enemies, from Rashid al-Din’s history (Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris; Ebrey, 170). Right: Khubilai Khan, by the Chinese painter Liu Guandao, 1280 (National Palace Museum, Taiwan; Ebrey, 174).

Latin tombstone, 1342, from Yang-chou, China.


툴루이칸의 모습



Kazakhstan and Central Asia 
in the XII-XIV centuries

The state of Turks-Karakhanids, that defeated the Samanid state, to the end of XI century disintegrated into small domains. Resulting from the internecine wars the state of Seldjuqs was divided into two parts - the East and the West. Merv became the capital of the East-Seldjuq state. Merv was flourishing under the sultan Sandjar (1118-1153), but in the XII century it was invaded by the nomads. Merv was devastated and robbed by the Oghuz tribes revolted against Sandjar in 1153.

Min_12_P4.jpg (52338 bytes) Uprising of the Oghuz people stroke a hard blow to the East-Seldjuq sultanate that decomposed into a lot of small domains. Khwarazm Shahs - the recent vassals of Seldjuqids availed themselved of the opportunity and occupied Khurasan, During 80-90-ies of the XII century the Khwarazm rulers subdued Mawarannahr and Iran.

In the first half of the XII century East Turkistan and Semirechye (the "Land of Seven Rivers") were conquered by Kara-kitais.

In 1141 in Mawarannahr there was a collision between the forces of Seldjuks and Kara-kitays. The Sultan Sandjar took to flight to Termez, in 1141 Kara-kitays occupied Bukhara. 

Meanwhile the Khwarazm Shah Atsyz made peace with Kara-kitais and committed himself to pay annual duties - 30000 dirkhems in gold. Profited by weakening of the sultan Sandjar, Atsyz attacked Merv and sacked it, but he could not hold out in Khurasan and in summer this year the power of Sandjar was restored. In 1143-1144 sultan Sandjar took a campaign against Khwarazm, made Atsyz to submit and return all robbed treasures. 

Min_13_P4.jpg (48013 bytes) Having failed in his aspirations towards creation of the independent state and occupation of Khorasan, Atsyz again turned his eyes to the banks of Syr Darya and was defeated by the Khwarazm Shah. 

Despite all his efforts Khwarazm Shah Atsyz could not achieve his goals and died being the vassal of Seldjuqs. But, nevertheless, by adjourning Jend and Mangyshlak to his possessions he made neighboring nomads dependent of Khwarazm. He added his armed forces by Turkic troops and made a good start to a strong and really independent state. 

Due to the efforts of the Khwarazm Shahs their state in the XII century became one of the strongest states in Central Asia. Under Tekesh the borders of the Khwarazm state extended as far as the borders of the Khaliphate including Khorasan and Iran.

At the beginning of the XII century Mukhammed ibn Tekesh took a campaign against towns near Syr-Darya where he met the army of Kara-kitays under the leadership of Tayaku. Kara-kitays were defeated, and Tayaku was captured and conveyed to Khwarazm. On his way back the Khwarazm Shah Mukhammed ibn Tekesh took possession of Utrar and other towns near Syr Darya. The ruler of the Utrar town, Khasan ibn Abd al-Khalyk was killed, and this event signified the end of the Karakhanid dynasty in Utrar. After the death of Khasan ibn Abd al-Khalyk Kayr-khan (Gaiyr-khan) became the ruler of Utrar. 

min_3_p4.jpg (51158 bytes) To confirm his possession of towns near Syr Darya Mukhammed ibn Tekesh started to mint silver coinage under his authority in the town of Yasy. In 1007 he took a campaign against Mawarannahr, but soon, in the battle with Kara-kitays, he again was defeated together with his Samarkand ally. 

Invasion of the Naimans from the East under the leadership of Kuchlug lead to the end of the supremacy of Kara-kitays in Central Asia. In 1210 Kuchlug assisted by the Karluks crashed the army of Kara-kitays. This was the end of the power of Kara-kitays in Mawarannahr. The state of Khwarazm Shahs remained after governing of Kara-kitays on the whole territory of Central Asia. After that in the official papers Mukhammed ibn Tekesh was named as Alexander the Great the second.

At that time the state of Chinggis Khan located in the steppes of Mongolia gained strength. According to Rashid ad-Din, for the first time the Mongolian forces met the army of the Khwarazm Shah in 1217. That time the Mongols went back to return in two years. In 1219 the Mongols started their invasion to Turkistan and Mawarannahr. min_4_p4.jpg (38651 bytes)

From the 2-nd half of XIII century the trade renewed, the cultural life of towns revived. At the beginning of the XIV century Uzbek, Khan of the Golden Horde adopted Islam that became the state religion. In the process of adoption of Islam by the Golden Horde Shaykhs of Yasawi tarikate, the followers of of Zengi-ata Sadr ad-Din Shaykh - Baba Tuklas, Saiyd-ata, Badr-ata, Uzun Khasan-ata played the major role. 

From the middle of the XIV century a new state of Chinggisids appeared in Mawarannahr and steppes Desht-a- Kipchak.

In the XIV century in Central Asia there were several states - the Golden Horde, the Ak Horde, the state of Timur, Moghulistan.

At the end of XIV century the state of Timur subdued the greater part of Central Asia.
During these centuries such world-known scientists as Akhmed Yugnaki, Ahmad Ata Yasawi and many others were born in Central Asia.


Temujin proclaimed Chinggis Khan, from a manuscript of Rashid al-Din.  Attended by courtiers, and sons Jochi and Ogedei stand on the right. (RM31)


Depiction of Gog and Magog, horrible giants thought to be ancestors of the Mongols.  From Romance of Alexander, Trinity College, Cambridge. (RM122)


Illustration by Mathew Paris from Chronica Majora, showing Mongols cooking and eating their victims and a woman prisoner awaiting a fiendish punishment.  (RM138) Words in Latin include: tartari, humani carnibus; Equi tartarorum. . . .

Persian drawing of Hülegü taking a drink.  Although he is leaning on a mace, holding his bow, with arrows scattered about, still, the artist conveys a very peaceful moment. (RM171)

Persian painting of Hülegü’s army beseiging a city.  Note use of the seige engine. (RM179)

Khubilai’s failed invasion of Japan, painting from Japanese Imperial Collection.  One third of the army was drowned when a typhoon struck the invading navy. (RM221)